Preheat oven to 400°. In a large oven-roof soup pot with a lid, or large Dutch oven, heat the coconut oil over medium-high heat. Add the cardamom pods, cloves, star anise pods, cinnamon, nutmeg, and jalapeño peppers, and sauté until fragrant, about 2 minutes.
Add the onion and the bay leaf, and sauté until the onion is translucent, about 4 minutes. Add the turmeric and sea salt, and continue cooking for two more minutes.
Add the vegetables, garlic-ginger paste, 6 cups water, coconut milk, cilantro, and garam masala, and bring to a boil. Taste the broth and adjust seasonings, if necessary. Add the rice and return to a boil while stirring. Cover, transfer to the oven, and cook for 45 minutes. Remove from the oven and let steam 10 minutes. Serve with fresh cilantro, raita, and other curries.